1992 Volume 29 Issue 6 Pages 509-514
Numerous Caucasian familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) pedigrees have been described in the literature, while only 21 Japanese FAD families have been reported to date. Here we report the clinical findings and the result of molecular genetic analysis of 4 patients from two FAD kindreds, OS-2 and OS-3. The proband in OS-2 family has developed loss of recent memory and place disorientation age at 43. A brain CT showed severe diffuse cortical atrophy. Her younger brother had dementia at 42 years and her mother and other 3 siblings had also dementia symptoms suspected to be Alzheimer's disease. The proband in OS-3 family showed declining recent memory at 49 years and developed dysphagia, gait disturbance and emotional incontinent with cerebral atrophy at 52 years. His father and elder brother demonstrated dementia signs at 60 and 54 years old, respectively. Recently it was reported that affected members from 2 Caucasian kindreds with FAD had missense mutation in exon 17 of the gene for amyloid precursor protein (APP). Patients from three different Japanese kindreds with FAD also showed the same mutation on the APP gene. Amino acid substitution (Val-Ile) at codon 717 by this mutation is responsible for FAD in at least some kindreds. We used genomic DNA from 4 affected members of 2 families to determine whether the disease in these families is associated with a APP717 mutation and the mutated codons, 102, 117, 129, 178 and 200, on the gene for protease-resistance prion protein (PrP) which cause transmissible dementia, Creutzfelt-Jacob disease (CJD) and Gerstmann-Strausler syndrome (GSS). The results showed that there were no mutations on these genes from 4 patients.