2001 年 76 巻 1 号 p. 25-32
The hyper-variable segments (323∼327 bp) of the mitochondrial D-loop for 169 Carassius auratus fishes in Japan were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and the amplified products were sequenced directly and compared. A dendrogram showing three major clusters was generated with the sequence data for 37 haplotypes at 66 polymorphic sites. One cluster (cluster I) exclusively consisted of the gengorobuna, which was regarded as an independent (sub) species. The triploid ginbuna belonged to two remaining clusters, mainly in the diploid ginbuna cluster (cluster III) and partially in the goldfish cluster (cluster II). This finding suggests that the triploid ginbuna has been derived from two different maternal lineages. The triploid ginbuna was considered to have come into existence during the last ice age on the basis of this phylogenetic data. No geographic differentiation was observed with respect to the triploid ginbuna sampled at three different localities in Japan; the Shibuta River in Kanagawa, Lake Imba in Chiba and Lake Biwa in Shiga. The phylogenetic tree also demonstrated a monophyletic relationship amongst the nigorobuna, the nagabuna and the ginbuna, sharing cluster III. The nigorobuna and nagabuna populations have most likely arisen from geographic and temporal variations within the ginbuna populations. We also discuss the evolutionary origin of the triploid in view of its paternal ancestors.