2018 年 93 巻 2 号 p. 37-50
Genetic variation and structure of Ubame oak (Quercus phillyraeoides A. Gray), a shrub tree on the Pacific coast of Japan, were examined to elucidate historical population dynamics using five chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) marker regions and 11 nuclear microsatellite loci. Three cpDNA haplotypes (A, B and C) were identified in a screen of 41 populations across the entire distribution range in Japan. Haplotype A was the most prevalent and was found in the entire range. Haplotype B was locally restricted to the Kii Peninsula, while haplotype C was restricted to the southwestern part of Japan. These haplotypes corresponded with the nuclear genetic constitution revealed by microsatellite markers. Two genetically differentiated major groups were identified by STRUCTURE analysis applied to 536 individuals from 28 populations, and they mostly corresponded with the two major cpDNA haplotypes, A and C. These populations were further divided into three geographically identified groups: group 1 in the area including Kanto and Tokai regions, the Kii Peninsula and the Muroto-misaki Cape on the Pacific coast; group 2 in the Bungo-suido Channel area; and group 3 in southern Kyushu and Okinawa. Populations in the Seto Inland Sea were divided into two groups: one was included in group 1 and appears to have originated from last glacial maximum (LGM) refugia located in the Kii Peninsula, while the other was included in group 2 and appears to have originated from LGM refugia located in southern Kyushu. These groups can be considered as conservation units for the preservation of unique seashore ecosystems, or as a seed source to foster coastal protection forests and next-generation production forests. Considerable care should be taken to protect isolated populations that may be specialized to unique local environments, such as those on the islands of Koshikijima and Izenajima.