Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) is a post-translational modification factor composed of about 100 amino acid residues. Most plant species express a family of SUMO isoforms. We found three novel homologs of rice (Oryza sativa L.) SUMO genes, OsSUMO4, OsSUMO5 and OsSUMO6, in addition to the known SUMO genes OsSUMO1–OsSUMO3. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that rice SUMO genes have diverged considerably during their evolution. All six of these SUMO genes complemented the phenotype of the SUMO-deficient pmt3 mutant of fission yeast. Among the amino acid sequences of rice SUMO proteins, consensus motifs (ΨKXE/D) of the SUMO acceptor site were found in OsSUMO3, OsSUMO4, OsSUMO5 and OsSUMO6. The heat shock protein HSF7 is known to be SUMOylated in Arabidopsis thaliana. SUMOylation using a bacterial expression system revealed that the rice HSF7 homolog was modified by the six rice SUMOs, and further suggested that OsSUMO1, OsSUMO3, OsSUMO4 and OsSUMO6 are involved in its multiple SUMOylation.