地理学評論
Online ISSN : 2185-1719
Print ISSN : 0016-7444
ISSN-L : 0016-7444
氣候馴化論の學史的背景(3)
第1次世界大戰後に於ける當論研究の目的意識究明
和田 俊二
著者情報
ジャーナル フリー

1950 年 23 巻 9-10 号 p. 304-317

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In the course of following the developement of acclimatization theory, the present writer has found three characteristic periods in its historical background. The first is the period after the middle of 19th century when the term “ acct i rnater” was first used i n France and the scientific study was initiated principally as a means of French colonial policy. The. second is the period of the laterr p_??_rt of 19th century when racial acclimatizability was considered as a major problem that influences the balance of power. in Europe concerning the division of Africa. He has already dealt with these periods in his formerr parts of this study.
The third period is discussed in this thesis, which is divided into five chapters. Chap. I is the bibliography. Chap. II points out its connection with the world-population problem. World War I began in an anti-Malthus at-mosphere, but the post-war population theory may be said a reversion to the Malthusian theory. Europeans' view of surplus population, arising out of the difficulty of economic rehabilitation, strongly influenced by the slightest absolute increase of population, was that they pinned their hope on the population-capacity of the tropics, because that of temperate zone would be saturated sooner or later.
Chap. III is developed upon the world-food problem closely related to the population theory in the preceding chapter. Then the food export from undeveloped areas reaches its limit, it should be the last stage of world-population capacity. Some scholars were conscious that Europe was fastaapproaching this stage and planned emigration into these areas as its solution, hence the problem of acclimatization of the white aboriginally settling down in the temperate zone.
Chap. IV deals with the rise of emigration problem. Before World War I the surplus population of Europe found its outlet in America. H wever, when Americans became conscious of the disappearance of frontiers, they awake ned to the population problem. It resulted in the execution of Quota Law in 1921. Consequently, many European and American geographers diverted their attention to non-temperate areas as a measure of rationally dealing w th European emigr_??_nts. As to whether tropical resources were promising or not, various op_??_nions prevailed, in which emigration. of the white to the tropics was emphasized by those who recognized the importance of the tropics.
Conclusion. The study of acclimatization in this third period aims at a solution of European surplus population. If the surplus population in Europe and such a view itself are the products of highly-capitalistic society of Europe, the acclimatization-theory also should be its product. Besides, the emigration problem which met with an unprecedented revolution should be the immediate cause of the need of study of acclimatization in this period.
Historically to clarify the recognition of this problem is the starting-point of a fresh study on this theory. The present writer will. not adhere to the old recognition of it.

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