2016 Volume 85 Issue 3 Pages 238-247
Petal growth associated with flower opening is due to cell expansion. To elucidate the role of soluble carbohydrates in expansion of petal cells in Eustoma grandiflorum, its soluble carbohydrates were identified, and changes in their subcellular concentrations during flower opening were investigated. In addition to glucose, fructose, sucrose, and myo-inositol, d-bornesitol was identified using 1H-NMR. d-Bornesitol was the major soluble carbohydrate in leaves and stems. Given that cyclitols are known to be the translocated carbohydrates in alfalfa, phloem exudate was analyzed. However, the translocated carbohydrate was suggested to be sucrose, and not d-bornesitol. In the petals, glucose and sucrose content increased whereas d-bornesitol and myo-inositol contents were almost constant during flower opening. The fructose content in petals was very low. Glucose, sucrose, myo-inositol, and d-bornesitol were found mainly in the vacuole, although sucrose was also found in the cytoplasm. In the petals of open flowers, glucose and sucrose concentrations in the vacuole increased to 60 and 53 mM. Inorganic ion concentrations in the symplast and apoplast did not increase during flower opening. The osmotic potential of the symplast and apoplast in the petals was lower at the open stage than the potential of those at the bud stage, and this difference was mainly attributed to increases in glucose and sucrose concentrations. The results suggest that the accumulation of glucose and sucrose in the vacuole reduces the symplastic osmotic potential, which appears to be involved in the cell expansion associated with flower opening, but that the contribution of d-bornesitol as an osmoticum to cell expansion is limited in Eustoma.