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Hypertension Research
Vol. 26 (2003) No. 9 September P 705-710



Clinical studies

Insulin resistance is one of the major risk factors associated with development of hypertension and atherosclerosis. Recent studies have shown that adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, may be involved in insulin resistance and development of atherosclerosis in diabetes patients. The aim of this study was to examine adiponectin levels in patients with essential hypertension to determine the relationships between adiponectin levels and insulin sensitivity and to examine the relationship of adiponectin with pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a general population based on the results of an epidemiological survey in Japan. In a clinical study, 20 normotensives (NT) and 30 non-treated essential hypertensives (EHT) were hospitalized, and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp (GC) was performed to evaluate insulin sensitivity defined as M value. EHT were divided into insulin-resistant EHT (EHT-R) and insulin-nonresistant EHT (EHT-N) according to the mean -1 SD of the M value of NT as a cut-off point. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), immunoreactive insulin (IRI), and adiponectin concentrations were measured. There were no significant differences in body mass index (BMI) or FPG among the NT, EHT-N, and EHT-R groups. The M value and adiponectin concentration in EHT-R were significantly lower than those in the NT or EHT-N. The IRI level in the EHT-R was significantly higher than those in the other groups. A positive correlation between adiponectin concentration and M value was found in all subjects, and adiponectin concentration and M value were found to be significant determinants of each other in multiple regression analysis. In an epidemiological study, we studied 391 male inhabitants of rural communities in Hokkaido, Japan. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), BMI, FPG, IRI, and adiponectin were measured in all subjects early in the morning. Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) values were calculated as an index of insulin sensitivity, and PWV was used as an index of atherosclerosis. A negative correlation between HOMA values and adiponectin concentration was found in all of the subjects. Multiple regression analysis revealed that adiponectin was a significant determinant for PWV in subjects less than 70 years of age. The results of the clinical study indicate that EHT-R had not only hyperinsulinemia but also a low concentration of adiponectin. The results of multiple regression analysis for determinants of degree of PWV using data obtained in the epidemiological study suggest that adiponectin plays a role in anti-atherosclerosis, partly through improvement of insulin resistance. (Hypertens Res 2003; 26: 705-710)

Copyright © 2003 by the Japanese Society of Hypertension

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