It is Rajasthan from where most Punjabi Śvetāmbara Jains’ ancestors migrated when they settled in Punjab and Pakistan, though at different periods. The migration history indicates a close relationship with their original regions and gotra deities based on caste/gotra formation.
The gotra deity, who is related to the social caste/gotra system, seems to appear in various dimensions. The origin of gotra deity worship seems ambiguous, however, as the ritual illustrates the various religious elements and regional sources.
It is characteristic for the Punjabi Osvāl Jains to worship an ancestral gotra deity (dādī/bābā) as kula deva/devī. Some gotras have quite a close relationship with the gotra deity who is daily and regularly worshipped by family and clan members.
The Punjabi Osvāls of the Śvetāmbara Jains include, under the one umbrella of Śrī Ātmānanda Jain Sabhā, the Mūrtipūjakas of Tapā Gaccha and Kharatara Gaccha as well as some Sthānakavāsīs. Their identity encompasses a variety of influences and recognised socio-religious spheres of the Punjabi Osvāls and, moreover, the Śvetāmbara Jains.