The Nanshan school was founded by Daoxuan (道宣) (596-667) of the Tang Dynasty. One of the doctrinal features of Daoxuan is the “essence of discipline” theory. Before Daoxuan, there were two currents, the avijñapti-rupa theory and the avijñapti-citta-viprayukta theory. On the other hand, Daoxuan explained in the Sifenlu shanbu suiji jiemo shu (四分律刪補随機羯磨疏) that the essence of discipline bija is kept in the alaya-vijñana. This theory is based on the Mahayanasamgraha (摂大乗論) translated by Paramartha (499-569). The reason why Daoxuan discussed this theory was that Vinaya was despised in society at that time. Daoxuan blamed fallen priests in the Sifenlu shanfan buque xingshi chao (四分律刪繁補闕行事鈔). As a reason for not obeying the Vinaya, these priests explained that this Vinaya was Hinayana. For the purpose of reforming fallen priests, Daoxuan may have had to regard the sect based on the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya as Mahayana. So Daoxuan explained bija as the essence of discipline based ona Mahayana text, namely the Mahayanasamgraha.