Free and lively discussions took place among philosophers and controversialists in central India at the time of the Buddha.
The Eternalist view (sassata-ditthi), the Annihilationist view (uccheda-ditthi) and the Fatalist view of the uncaused condition of existence (ahetuka-ditthi) are most famous of the various heretical views mentioned in early Buddhist literature.
How did the Buddhists criticize these heretical views, especially from the viewpoint of the doctrine of paticca-samuppada? They advocated the doctrine of paticca-samuppada which teaches the origin and cessation of dharmas based on causes and conditions.
The Buddhists emphasized the correctness of the theory, placing themselves in a logical position. On the other hand, they criticized heretical views, presenting them as sensational by asserting the doctrine of paticcasamuppada: that [heretical view] is conditioned by contact [between organs of sense and the object] (Digha-Nikaya Brahmajdla-sutta; Samyutta-Nikaya, XII 24 Aññatitthiya, 25 Bhumija).
This Buddhist attitude to heretical views is also seen in the Sutta-nipata, the Kalahavivada-sutta, one of the earliest works of Buddhist literature, which expounds that a man makes his decisions in the world after seeing becoming and not-becoming in forms, and that the idea of becoming and not-bccoming is produced through contact.