2006 年 55 巻 1 号 p. 323-318,1213
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the concept of “whole theory” (avayavivada) in the Vyomavati, focusing on a dispute between the Buddhist and the Nyaya-Vaisesika about the relation between a whole (avayavin) and its parts (avayava). The Buddhist's objection against this relation insists on the impossibility of the subsistence (vrttyanupapatti) of the whole in its parts and of the parts in the whole, either partially (ekadesa) or completely (krtsna). In the response to this objection, two answers were prepared in the tradition of the Nyaya-Vaisesika. One is that the words “partially” or “completely” do not apply to the whole, which is a unity. The other is that the relation between the whole and its parts is inherence (samavaya). When we analyze this dispute about the relation in question in the Vyomavati, we can see that the objection denies the relation from a new point of view, which is based on the nature (svarupa, rupa, svabhava, and atman) of the whole, and is found in the Tattvasamgraha. Although the new changes to the objection are in the Vyomavati, a new point of view is not introduced into the answer to the objection. In this paper, then, I will show that the answers to the objection in the Vyomavati are composed of the traditional views of the Nyaya-Vaisesika.