The motif of ‘making hell’ is taken up.
Although it has known that a similar motif is seen in the Liuduji jing, Mahavastu and Pusa benyuan jing, the same motif is in the Prajñaparamita also.
1-1. The theme can be classified into two kinds.
 Liuduji jing, Mahavastu and Pusa benyuan jing… Bodhisattva offers all his fortune as dana.
 Prajñaparamita…Avinivartaniya-Bodhisattva is not disturbed in any situation.
1-2. Classified with the person who is afraid of a Bodhisattva.
 Sakka…Liuduji jing and Mahavastu
 Marapapiyas…Pusan benyuan jing and Prajñaparamita
1-3. From 1-1 and 1-2, The story of the Pusan benyuan jing is similar to the Liuduji jing and Mahavastu, but the person who is afraid of the Bodhisattva is Mara, so the sutra serves as a turning point where these tales had been changing.
2. It can be presumed that the verses were older than the prose in the Mahavastu.
3-1. Because the Bodhisattva in the Liuduji jing, Mahavastu and Pusan benyuan jing is Avinivartaniya-Bodhisattva himself, these 3 tales were written before the vocabulary such as Avinivartaniya was fixed.
3-2. Or, these 3 tales were written in the area where vocabulary such as Avinivartaniya was not known yet.