2006 年 55 巻 1 号 p. 491-487,1232
In some sutras, such as the Avatamsaka, Jñanalokalamkara etc., and in eastern Asian buddhist treatises of the 7-9 centuries, we find several statement such as that in the title of this article. This subject has not been discussed recently in the academic world. The meaning of this extraordinary expression is difficult to understand from the point of ontological thinking. But if we look into those sutras and treatises carefully, we can understand it epistemologically. At the time of a practicioner's attainment of enlightenment, all the world appears to the enlightened one, as tathata and buddhata. All the world includes all living creatures, and they appear to him as buddhas, although they, to themselves, still remain prthag-jana.