The monk with the monastic name Kihwa 己和 (1376-1433) had Tukt'ong as his pen name, and the public name of Hamho. His family name was Yu, and Ch'ungju his homeland. Hamho lived through the late Koryo and early Choson periods; when young, he studied Confucian texts, but at the age of 21, he confronted the death of his best friend, which made him realize impermanent reality and become a monk at Uisangam, Kwanak Mountain. Facing the Buddhist crisis of ‘respect of Confucianism and oppression of Buddhism’ during the early Choson period, he tried to protect Buddhism by writing the Hyon chong ron. Although he inherited the Son of the Imjae lineage, he was not a mere Son master; he practiced and studied both Son and sutras, put an emphasis on sila, and declared the unification of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism, which he had mastered.
He had a deep interest in the thoughts and teachings of Pure Land, and wrote the Mitachan, An'yangchan, and Mitakyungchan by summarizing the Three Books of Pure Land. The Buddha-Contemplation Son which emphasizes that practicing Son and the contemplation of the Buddha are not separate considers self-belief and belief in outside salvation to be the same. While teaching the Buddha-Contemplation Son, he acknowledged the direction of the Pure Land and commented the recitation of Amitabha's name. He taught people the Buddha-Contemplation Son and organized an association of of its practice. Furthermore, he stressed contemplating Buddha at the time of death and left dharma talks and many words regarding death ritual.