2007 年 55 巻 2 号 p. 652-656,1250
The role of emperors in the ninth century as described in six Japanese history was to remove disaster and maintain a peaceful nation by conducting a Confucian government and leading a Buddhist state. One approach is that of Michizane who in his Ganmon advocates that while ruling an emperor cannot rightly benefit others, but that after abdication, renouncing the world such benefit is possible. Further, it was thought that after death one would continue one's bodhisattva practice. One did not wish for the death of an emperor, but memorial services aided him in his postmortem bodhisattva practice.
At the beginning of the tenth century, according to the Ganmon, the Emperor came to be compared to Shakyamuni, and a reincarnation of eminent Chinese monks. In the period of cloister government, he comes to be seen as an incarnation of Dainichi Nyorai. We can discover the germ of this Buddhisization in the ninth century poetry of Michizane.