The relation between n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and nonfatal myocardial infarction is still controversial.
A multicenter case-control pilot study on n-3 PUFA as a negative risk factor for myocardial infarction was performed in Niigata prefecture. Seventy-three patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and age and gender matched controls (n = 84) were recruited. Serum leptin levels were significantly higher in patients with AMI than the controls (8.1 ± 6.7 ng/mL versus 5.8 ± 3.7 ng/mL, P < 0.01), and serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) levels were significantly lower in patients with AMI than the controls (46 ± 10.5 mg/dL versus 60 ± 15 mg/dL, P < 0.00001). Statistically significant differences were preserved in leptin and HDLc when the data were analyzed separately by gender. Serum levels (%weight) of linolenic acid (C18:3:n3), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5:n3), docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5:n3), and total n-3 PUFA were significantly lower in patients with AMI than the control group (P < 0.000001, < 0.05, < 0.05, < 0.05, respectively). The serum n-3 PUFA/saturated fatty acid (SF) ratio and n-3 PUFA/n-9 monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) ratio were significantly lower in patients with AMI than the controls (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively). When the subjects were separated into two categories according to an n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio below 0.3 or above 0.3, patients with AMI were more frequently in the former while the controls were more frequently in the latter (P < 0.05).
N-3 PUFA may be a negative risk factor for AMI. The results suggest leptin is a risk factor for AMI irrespective of ethnicity and gender.
2005 by the International Heart Journal Association