Volume 38 (1997) Issue 6 Pages 831-840
For the treatment of hypertension, the combination of an angiotensinconverting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor and a thiazide diuretic is supported by multiple lines of evidence, because these drugs have synergistic action and are expected to cancel out each other's adverse side effects. However, the longterm outcome of this combination antihypertensive therapy is not entirely clear. In the present multicenter open trial, we investigated the long-term efficacy and safety of combined antihypertensive therapy with an ACE inhibitor, lisinopril, and a thiazide diuretic, trichlormethiazide. A total of 466 patients with essential hypertension were treated with lisinopril alone (monotherapy group, n=360) or with a combination of lisinopril with trichlormethiazide (combination therapy group, n=106) for 1 year. The average blood pressure was effectively lowered to below 150/90mmHg in both the monotherapy and the combination therapy groups throughout the study period. The average maintenance dose of lisinopril was lower when combined with thiazide than when given alone (9.8 vs. 11.5mg/day, p<0.001). Dry cough was the major side effect of lisinopril; no severe adverse effects were observed. The incidence of cough was not significantly different between the monotherapy group (13.1%) and the combination therapy group (11.3%). The increase in serum potassium observed in the monotherapy group was reversed by the concurrent use of the thiazidediuretic in the combination therapy group. Fasting blood glucose was significantly reduced in the monotherapy group; the reduction observed in the combination therapy group was not significant. Thus, the present results provide useful information as to the effectiveness and safety of combined antihypertensive therapy with lisinopril and a thiazide in comparison with monotherapy with lisinopril.