2000 Volume 38 Issue 4 Pages 339-355
To investigate the importance of the cadmium (Cd) exposure condition in the evaluation of toxic effect on renal function and bone metabolism, six groups of Male Wistar rats were given Cd at respective daily doses of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 mgCd/kg (as CdCl2) via a gastric tube for 6 consecutive days a week for 60 weeks. In the groups given a low Cd dose (2, 5 and 10 mgCd/kg), relatively more Cd accumulated in the kidney without liver damage than in the liver. In the high Cd dose groups (20, 30 and 60 mgCd/kg), on the other hand, more Cd accumulated in the liver than in the kidney. The daily intake of Cd dose from the intestinal tract in each experimental group was deduced to be about 0.36%-0.54% of the cumulative dose of oral Cd administration. The daily intake of Cd into the body was estimated as 7, 22, 40, 100, 120, 260 μgCd/kg/day in the experimental groups of 2, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 mgCd/kg/day, respectively. Increase of plasma enzyme activity (GOT, GPT) and of urinary enzyme excretion (NAG, AAP, GST), reflecting hepatic damage and renal dysfunction, was found in the high Cd dose groups (30 and 60 mgCd/kg) from the 5th week. Non-CdMT concentration in the kidney was also significantly high in the high Cd dose groups. In the low Cd dose groups (2 and 5 mgCd/kg), although the renal Cd concentration was higher than that of the high Cd dose groups, prominent renal dysfunction and hepatic damage were not observed. Regeneration, vacuolization, and eosinophilic bodies in proximal tubular tissue were mainly observed in the groups subjected to 20, 30 and 60 mgCd/kg administration. Very slight regeneration was also observed in the renal proximal tubular tissue at the 30th week for the 5 mgCd/kg and 10 mgCd/kg groups, and at the 60th week for the 2 mgCd/kg group. Remarkable decrease of bone mineral density at the midpoint of the femur was found in the high Cd dose groups. Also, the decrease in bone mineral density was observed before or after the manifestation of the renal dysfunction, depending on the dose and the duration of Cd administration. Urinary excretion of Pyr, DPyr, and Ca increased and plasma BGP decreased in the higher Cd dose groups. Osteoid volume in the femur tissue was not increased significantly by Cd exposure. Based on these results, it was suggested that Cd exposure caused osteoporotic change. The results of the present study suggested that the toxic effect of Cd on renal function and that on bone metabolism were caused at different times and that renal Cd concentration after long-term oral Cd administration depended on the dose and the duration of Cd exposure.