2005 Volume 44 Issue 11 Pages 1174-1177
A 55-year-old man who was diagnosed as having type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) at the age of 50 years was started on insulin therapy. At 54 years old of age, he suddenly developed complex partial seizures, which frequently occurred despite intensive anti-epileptic drug therapy. Neurological examination on admission revealed hyporeflexia in bilateral upper and lower extremities without any muscle rigidity, painful spasm or cerebellar ataxia. Laboratory examination showed poor glycemic control with increased glycated hemoglobin levels. Positive anti-thyroglobulin antibodies and anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies and slight elevation of TSH levels are consistent with subclinical hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto’s thyroiditis. A high titer of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies was detected in the patient’s serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Electroencephalography showed temporal spikes, consistent with complex partial seizure. This is a very rare case presenting with concomitant type 1 diabetes and drug-resistant epilepsy associated with high titers of circulating and CSF anti-GAD antibodies.