Disturbances in mineral and bone metabolism play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The term "renal osteodystrophy" has recently been replaced with "CKD-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD)", which includes vascular calcification as well as bone abnormalities. Following this paradigm shift, the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy released guidelines for the management of secondary hyperparathyroidism in chronic dialysis patients, which prioritized improvement in survival, but not in bone abnormalities. According to these guidelines, parathyroid intervention, such as parathyroidectomy and percutaneous ethanol injection therapy, should be indicated if mineral disorders cannot be managed by pharmacological means. Recently, several novel therapeutic tools, including sevelamer hydrochloride, calcitriol analogs, and cinacalcet hydrochloride have been introduced in the clinical setting in Japan. Harmonizing these therapeutic modalities, we should expect more effective management of CKD-MBD, leading to the improvement of morbidity and mortality in this patient population.
2008 by The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine