We report herein the case of a 37-year-old man who developed probable progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) following an umbilical cord blood transplant. The patient showed favorable clinical, neuroradiological and virological responses after treatment with mefloquine, an anti-malarial drug. Mefloquine may offer some benefits as a treatment for PML in patients with or without human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection. This report highlights the need to gather sufficient data to confirm the efficacy of mefloquine against this devastating viral disease of the central nervous system.
2010 by The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine