Mucosal prolapse syndrome (MPS) has been recognized as a chronic benign inflammatory disorder, characterized mainly by rectal mucosal prolapse. Disorders representing this condition include solitary rectal ulcer syndrome (SRUS), rectal prolapse, proctitis cystica profunda, and inflammatory cap polyps. The gross appearance of rectal MPS can be occasionally misinterpreted as rectal cancer. In contrast, there have been a few reports of colorectal cancer originating from prolapsed mucosa. Herein, we report a case of MPS associated with two independent rectal cancers extending into the submucosal layer. We speculate that long-standing MPS may increase the risk of malignant transformation.
2011 by The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine