Background Tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic and cardiovascular disease. Studies have found evidence that smoking cessation is associated with weight gain, which is itself a leading cause of cardiovascular disease.
Aim The present study sought to determine how smoking cessation and associated weight gain affect adiponectin levels and insulin resistance.
Methods Fifty-two male habitual smokers were treated for 2 months with transdermal nicotine patches, and the 28 subjects who successfully quit smoking were analyzed. Subjects were divided into two sub-groups according to their weight change: weight maintainers and weight gainers. Serum adiponectin levels and the homeostasis model assessment ratio (HOMA-R) were evaluated at the beginning of the study, and at 1 week and 9 weeks after cessation of patch use.
Results In weight gainers (n=18), serum adiponection levels tended to increase at 1 week after the end of treatment (mean difference 0.4±1.0 μg/mL, p=0.08). Moreover, after 9 weeks, adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in weight gainers (mean difference between 1 week and 9 weeks 0.8±0.9 μg/mL, p=0.002). In weight maintainers, adiponectin levels increased slightly after smoking cessation, but changes were not significant. In weight gainers, HOMA-R index was significantly increased (mean difference between baseline and 9 weeks 0.4±0.7, p=0.01), while in weight maintainers, HOMA-R index showed no differences throughout the study.
Conclusion Our findings suggest that the adverse effects of weight gain attenuate some of the beneficial effects of smoking cessation.
2011 by The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine