Internal Medicine
Online ISSN : 1349-7235
Print ISSN : 0918-2918
ISSN-L : 0918-2918
Gender Differences in Lifestyle Factors Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Preliminary Metabolic Syndrome in the General Population: The Watari Study
Tomomi HattoriSatoshi KonnoMasanori Munakata
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2017 Volume 56 Issue 17 Pages 2253-2259


Objective In Japan, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and preliminary metabolic syndrome (preMetS) are more prevalent in men; however, it remains unclear whether the relationship between these metabolic disorders and lifestyle factors is similar between genders.

Methods We examined waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood, and various lifestyle factors in 3,166 individuals aged from 30-79 years of age from the Japanese general population. MetS was diagnosed on the basis of central obesity - assessed by waist circumference - plus two or more of the following cardio-metabolic risks according to Japanese criteria: high blood pressure, hyperglycemia, and lipid abnormality. Central obesity plus one of the risks was defined as preMetS.

Results Men had a significantly higher prevalence of MetS (23.3% vs. 8.7%, p<0.001) and preMetS (21.2% vs. 10.2%, p<0.001) than women. An age-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that heavy drinkers were associated with an increased probability of MetS (odds ratio, 1.91: 95% confidence interval, 1.29-2.83) and preMetS (1.69: 1.11-2.58); fast eaters were also related to preMetS (1.83: 1.33-2.55) and MetS (1.55: 1.12-2.15) in men. Lacking regular exercise was significantly associated with preMetS (1.38: 1.03-1.85), but not MetS. In women, preMetS was significantly associated with fast eaters and lacking regular exercise (1.44: 1.01-2.07 and 1.41: 1.02-1.96, respectively); a stepwise increase in each odds ratio (2.02: 1.40-2.91 and 1.47: 1.03-2.09, respectively) was also observed for MetS.

Conclusion The relationships between lifestyle factors and MetS or preMetS differed between men and women, which suggests the need for gender-specific lifestyle modification to effectively prevent MetS.

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© 2017 by The Japanese Society of Internal Medicine
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