2018 Volume 57 Issue 23 Pages 3365-3370
Objective The autonomic functions of hereditary transthyretin (ATTRm) amyloidosis, traditionally referred to as familial amyloid polyneuropathy, have primarily been investigated in patients with Val30Met mutations, and information regarding non-Val30Met patients is scarce. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the cardiac and peripheral vasomotor autonomic functions in non-Val30Met patients.
Methods The coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CVR-R), responses to the Valsalva manoeuvre, head-up tilt test results, noradrenaline infusion test results, and the (123) I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake on myocardial scintigraphy were assessed in five patients. The predominant manifestations were neuropathy in three patients (Val94Gly, Val71Ala, and Pro24Ser), cardiomyopathy in one (Thr60Ala), and oculoleptomeningeal involvement in one (Tyr114Cys).
Results Although one patient with predominant cardiomyopathy did not manifest orthostatic hypotension during the head-up tilt test, the CVR-R, responses to the Valsalva manoeuvre, and myocardial MIBG uptake indicated the presence of cardiac sympathetic and parasympathetic dysfunction in all patients. The total peripheral resistance at 60° tilt did not increase from the baseline values in any of the examined patients. An infusion of low-dose noradrenaline induced an increase in the systolic blood pressure, except in one patient with mild neuropathy.
Conclusion Cardiac and peripheral vasomotor autonomic dysfunctions were prevalent in non-Val30Met patients, irrespective of their phenotype, suggesting a common pathology of autonomic involvement. However, the vasoconstrictor function was preserved, even in a patient with advanced neuropathy.