2018 Volume 57 Issue 4 Pages 487-495
Objective In the past decade, extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria have increasingly frequently been isolated from various kinds of clinical specimens. However, the appropriate treatment of pneumonia in which ESBL-producing bacteria are isolated from sputum culture is poorly understood. To investigate whether or not ESBL-producing bacteria isolated from sputum in pneumonia cases should be treated as the causative bacteria.
Methods and Patients In this retrospective study, we screened for patients, admitted between January 2009 and December 2015 in whom pneumonia was suspected and for whom sputum cultures yielded Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. isolates. We identified patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) or healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) from whom ESBL-producing bacteria had been isolated from sputum culture and to whom antibiotic treatment had been given with a diagnosis of pneumonia. We analyzed the patients' backgrounds and the effect of the antibiotic treatment for the initial 3-5 days.
Results From 400 patients initially screened, 27 with ESBL-producing bacteria were secondarily screened. In this subset of patients, 15 were diagnosed with pneumonia, including 7 with CAP (5 E. coli and 2 K. pneumoniae) and 8 with HCAP (8 E. coli). These patients exhibited an average age of 84.1 years old, and 9 of 15 were men. No patients were initially treated with antimicrobials that are effective against isolated ESBL-producing bacteria. However, 13 of 15 patients showed improvement of pneumonia following the initial antibiotic treatment.
Conclusion ESBL-producing bacteria isolated from sputum are not likely to be the actual causative organisms of pneumonia.