2020 Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 181-192
Objective Pneumonia develops in bedridden patients, even in those receiving oral care, and malnutrition is associated with the development of pneumonia. We examined the effects of nutritional treatment on the prevention of pneumonia.
Patients and Methods We retrospectively examined the effects of nutritional treatment on the prevention of pneumonia by analyzing the records of bedridden patients (n=68; mean age: 68.0 years) who stayed in a hospital for 2 years or longer.
Results Among the analyzed patients, pneumonia developed in 52 (76%) patients, and the mean frequency of pneumonia was 1.6 times per year during the first year of stay. In a multivariate analysis, the serum albumin level at admission in the pneumonia group was lower than that in the non-pneumonia group. The frequency of pneumonia during the second year of stay was lower than that during the first year of stay. Serum levels of albumin and total protein (TP) at one year after admission were higher than those at admission in all analyzed patients, and in all patients (n=52) and elderly (≥65 years) patients (n=31) in the pneumonia group. The proportions of patients with hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL) and hypoproteinemia (<6.5 g/dL) at one year after admission were lower than those at admission. The increases in the proportions of patients presenting a reduced frequency of pneumonia were correlated with increases in the proportions of patients presenting increased levels of albumin and/or TP.
Conclusion Nutritional treatment may reduce the frequency of pneumonia by improving malnutrition in bedridden patients receiving oral care.