2021 Volume 60 Issue 23 Pages 3709-3719
Objective Viral pneumonia is not rare in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Mixed or secondary pneumonia (coinfection) can be seen in viral pneumonia; however, its frequency in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has only been investigated in a few studies of short duration, and its significance has not been fully elucidated. We investigated the frequency and significance of co-infection in patients with COVID-19 over a 1-year study period.
Methods Coinfection was investigated via multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), culture of respiratory samples, rapid diagnostic tests, and paired sera. We used logistic regression analysis to analyze the effect of coinfection on severity at admission and Cox proportional-hazards model analysis to analyze the effect of coinfection on need for high-flow nasal cannula, invasive mandatory ventilation use, and death, respectively.
Patients We retrospectively investigated 298 patients who suffered CAP due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection diagnosed by PCR and were admitted to our institution from February 2020 to January 2021.
Results Primary viral pneumonia, and mixed viral and bacterial pneumonia, accounted for 90.3% and 9.7%, respectively, of COVID-19-associated CAP, with viral coinfection found in 30.5% of patients with primary viral pneumonia. Influenza virus was the most common (9.4%). Multivariable analysis showed coinfection not to be an independent factor of severity on admission, need for high-flow nasal cannula or invasive mandatory ventilation, and mortality.
Conclusion Viral coinfection was common in COVID-19-associated CAP. Severity on admission, need for high-flow oxygen therapy or invasive mandatory ventilation, and mortality were not affected by coinfection.