2022 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 23-27
Nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections are an emerging problem. Common organisms include Mycobacterium avium, M. intracellulare, and M. kansasii, along with the M. avium intracellulare complex (MAC), which includes both M. avium and M. intracellulare. Typically, NTM infections affect the lungs and subsequently demonstrate a chronic course. Therefore, persistent respiratory symptoms generally indicate of the presence of pulmonary NTM diseases, and chest radiography, along with a sputum examination, are essential for its diagnosis. Because NTM are ubiquitous environmental organisms, a positive culture from a minimum of two separate expectorated sputum samples are required to make a diagnosis. The repertoire of effective drugs for treatment is considerably limited, indicating the need for long-term management with multiple drugs. Establishing a treatment regimen with high therapeutic efficacy and safety is an important issue for the future.