2022 Volume 61 Issue 1 Pages 71-74
A 69-year-old man with advanced small-cell lung cancer achieved partial remission after 3 courses of immunochemotherapy that included atezolizumab. Ten days after the last treatment, he developed paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome and required mechanical ventilation. Serology testing detected anti-Hu and anti-SOX-1 antibodies. Despite steroid pulse therapy, various anticonvulsants, continuous intravenous sedation, and a fourth course of chemotherapy without atezolizumab, his condition failed to improve. Paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome with autoantibodies after immune-checkpoint inhibitor treatment has not been reported previously. Although a causal relationship between immune-checkpoint inhibitors and paraneoplastic syndromes has been suggested, the mechanism remains unknown.