2015 Volume 4 Issue 4 Pages 190-197
We reported a minor inflammation-driven ageing (inflammageing) assessed by highly sensitive CRP (hsCRP) in normal individuals and patients with Werner syndrome (WS), followed by an ageing associated Th2-biased cytokine change in normal ageing in the previous papers. To further study the association of hsCRP and 26 cytokines/chemokines in 35 WS patients, a multiple cytokine array system was used in the same serum samples as were examined for hsCRP. The serum levels of Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and GM-CSF), Th1 products (IL-2, TNFα, IL-12, and IFNγ) and monocyte/macrophage products (MCP-1, basic FGF and G-CSF) in WS were significantly elevated compared with normal ageing. Elevated hsCRP level in WS was significantly correlated with IL-6, IL-12 and VEGF levels, if age and sex were taken into account. A pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine circuit-stimulated immunological shift to Th2 in WS was similar to normal ageing. These cytokine/chemokine changes may induce a systemic chronic inflammation monitored by hsCRP, though these immunological changes in WS were more complicated than normal ageing, possibly due to the WS-specific chronic inflammation such as skin ulcer, diabetes mellitus and central obesity with visceral fat deposition. Further study may warrant the pathophysiology of Th2 shift and Th2-biased inflammageing in normal ageing and WS.