2007 Volume 47 Issue 10 Pages 1394-1400
Isothermal reduction experiments are carried out to study carbothermic reduction of hematite in hematite–graphite composite pellets. The carbothermic reduction is dominated by the direct reduction at the initial stage of reduction, and it is determined by the indirect reduction together with the carbon solution loss reaction when the CO partial pressure exceeds a certain value, which is dependent on the temperature. The reduction is greatly promoted due to the increment of the contact area between the hematite and graphite particles and enhancement of heat conduction in the hematite–graphite composite pellets.
The indirect reduction together with the carbon solution loss reaction is markedly activated with increasing temperature. At a moderate carrier gas flow rate, the carbothermic reduction rate reaches the highest value. The reduction can also be effectively improved with decreasing the graphite particle size.
The relationship of reduction products, heating temperature and holding time has been obtained from the XRD analysis results at the different stages for various temperatures under the present experimental conditions. The SEM observation indicates that the indirect reduction together with the carbon solution loss reaction should dominate the carbothermic reduction of hematite at the later stage of reduction.