2008 Volume 48 Issue 12 Pages 1704-1711
A Mathematical model has been developed to analyze the transient three-dimensional and three-phase flow in an argon gas bottom stirring ladle with one and two off-centered porous plugs. Multiphase Volume of Fluid (VOF) method is used to simulate the behaviors of slag layer. Numerical simulation was conducted to clarify the transient phenomena of gas injection into the molten steel. When argon gas is injected into molten steel in a ladle, the gas rising passage is formed near the plug, and then bubbles are created in the molten steel. The rising gas bubbles impinge on the slag intermittently and break the slag layer to create the slag eye. Simultaneously, the wave at the slag–steel interface was formed and the wave frequency increases with the increase of argon gas flow rate for one off-centered plug case. The modeling simulations show that the diameter of slag eye changes from 0.43 to 0.81 m when the flow rate of argon gas varies from 100 to 300 NL/min for a 220 ton ladle. The relationship between non-dimensional areas of slag eye and the modified Froude number is in good agreement with the experimental data reported in literature. At the same total gas flow rate of 300 NL/min, the two-plugs generate two eyes with the diameters of around 0.6 m. Since the significant deformation of slag layer occurs during gas stirring operation, the thickness of slag becomes thin near the slag eye and thick near the ladle wall, respectively. The downward flow velocity of steel at the slag eye periphery may be affected significantly by flow rate of Ar gas. Therefore, when the downward flow velocity would be larger, the more emulsification of slag could be expected.