ISIJ International
Online ISSN : 1347-5460
Print ISSN : 0915-1559
ISSN-L : 0915-1559
Regular Article
Carbothermal Solid State Reduction of Manganese Ores: 3. Phase Development
Ring KononovOleg OstrovskiSamir Ganguly
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2009 Volume 49 Issue 8 Pages 1115-1122


The paper considers phase development in the process of solid state carbothermal reduction of Wessels (South Africa) and Groote Eylandt (Australia) manganese ores in inert gases and hydrogen. Reduction starts with reduction of higher manganese oxides to MnO and iron oxides to metallic iron. When the graphite content in the graphite/ore mixture was in excess relative to the stoichiometric ratio, the final reduction product was (Fe, Mn)7C3 carbide. In the process of reduction of Groote Eylandt ore, silica also was reduced. In the reduction of high silica-ore, manganese oxide was predominantly reduced from tephroite and rhodonite. Silicon in the alloy was present in the form of ferro-manganese-silicon carbide and silicide (Fe, Mn)5Si3.

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© 2009 by The Iron and Steel Institute of Japan
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