2012 Volume 52 Issue 9 Pages 1607-1615
A submerged entry nozzle (SEN) for thin slab casters operating at casting speeds as high as 7.5 m/minute was developed based on fundamental grounds of boundary-layer theory and water modeling experiments. Experimental techniques included tracer injection to observe overall fluid flow patterns, high speed video camera and image analysis to follow dynamic changes of meniscus levels and particle image velocimetry to measure water speeds in the mold. This design was compared with two other SEN designs of nozzles under current commercial use at various thin slab casters. Direct comparisons of mathematical simulations and experimental results among the three SEN's evidenced that this new SEN yields very stable flows which are independent from casting speed and nozzle immersion depth. Fluid flow developed by this SEN consists of a double roll pattern without generation of superficial vortices. The two other SEN's yield instable discharging jets due to and excessive shearing effects with the surrounding fluid inducing severe dissipation of kinetic energy which promotes severe tailing effects inducing strong meniscus oscillations. The proposed design has reported good industrial performances and a longer operating life because the slag protection belt suffers less wear thanks to smaller velocities of the bath in contact with the SEN wall.