2014 Volume 54 Issue 9 Pages 2039-2044
We investigated the changes induced in the viscosities of CaO–SiO2–Al2O3–K2O melts (CaO/SiO2 molar ratio = 0.68 ± 0.04, Al2O3 content = 13.4 ± 0.6 mol%) with the addition of K2O in amounts of 0–17.4 mol% for temperatures of 1673–1873 K using the rotating crucible method. The viscosity increased with an increase in the K2O content when K2O/Al2O3 molar ratio < 0.7. On the other hand, the viscosity decreased with the addition of K2O for K2O/Al2O3 molar ratio > 0.9. The maximum values of the viscosities were noticed in the range of 0.7 < K2O/Al2O3 molar ratio < 0.9. This behavior could not be explained on the basis of the polymerization degree of the aluminosilicate network structure. The 17O magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) spectrum of the 31.6CaO-44.2SiO2-13.4Al2O3-10.8K2O (mol%) glass suggested that K+ ions preferentially compensate the negative charge of AlO4, while the Ca2+ ions primarily create non-bridging oxygens (NBOs). The viscosity data and the 17O MAS NMR spectrum also suggested that the increase in viscosity for K2O/Al2O3 molar ratio < 0.7 was because of the increase in the average bond strength of the aluminosilicate framework, which was attributable to the substitution of Ca2+ ions by K+ ions at the charge compensator sites. The activation energies for viscous flow indicated that the NBOs bonded with K+ ions, forming NBO-K species, for K2O contents greater than those corresponding to the viscosity maxima. Thus, the viscosities of aluminosilicate melts are indicative of the average bond strengths of the melts.