2018 Volume 58 Issue 1 Pages 98-106
In this paper, the effect of super-gravity field on the grain refinement and tensile properties of as-cast Cu–Sn alloys were investigated systematically. The experimental results revealed that the as-cast grains of Cu–Sn alloys can be significantly refined in super-gravity field. In normal gravity field, the average grain size is 2.13 mm, while in super-gravity fields of G=100, 300 and 600, they are 0.35 mm, 0.173 mm and 0.074 mm, respectively. Accordingly, both the tensile strength and the plasticity are enhanced with the increasing gravity coefficient. The ultimate tensile strength of Cu-11wt%Sn sample in normal gravity field is 265 MPa, while in super-gravity fields of G=100, 300 and 600, they are 449 MPa, 487 MPa and 521 MPa, respectively. The fracture morphology transforms from fragility to plasticity with the increasing gravity coefficient. The mechanism for the grain refinement is that super-gravity promotes the falling of crystal nuclei within the solidifying melt only at the early solidification period, which can be called the “Crystal Rain”. As a result, the crystal nuclei multiply within the solidifying melt and a refined grain structure was obtained. Besides, the refining effect by super-gravity increases with the increasing solute Sn concentration because of the increased nucleation rates and a decrease in crystal growth.