2020 Volume 60 Issue 6 Pages 1108-1126
Our strategy is to enhance the fracture property of ultra-high-strength low-alloy steels with a yield strength of 1.4 GPa or over by arresting the propagation of brittle cracks in hierarchical, anisotropic, and ultrafine-grained structures. This provides a fail-safe design in addition to suppressing crack initiation. The present article reviews the strength, ductility, toughness, and delayed fracture resistance of ultra-high-strength low-alloy steels with ultrafine elongated grain structures processed by the deformation of tempered martensitic structures at elevated temperatures (referred to as warm tempforming). The evolution of heterogeneous microstructures during warm tempforming using multi-pass caliber rolling is discussed, as are the microstructural factors controlling the strength and fracture properties of warm tempformed steels. Furthermore, we apply warm tempformed steels with ultrafine elongated grain structures to the fabrication of ultra-high-strength bolts.