Article ID: ISIJINT-2019-029
In this paper, the residual thickness of carbon brick, residual carbon brick and skull of a Chinese 2800 m3 blast furnace hearth were studied in detail and the formation mechanism of skull and brittle layer were proposed. The results show that the remaining thickness of carbon brick is highly inhomogeneous in the height and circumferential direction. In the circumferential direction, the sidewall erosion in the range of 3.6 m under the taphole is more serious. In the height direction, the carbon brick at the distance of 1.0–2.0 m below the central line of the taphole is more obvious. The erosion of hearth bottom is "mumps face+ bowl" type erosion. The minerals of the hot surface of carbon brick used for more than nine years are mainly composed of KAlSiO4, KAlSi2O6, Zn2SiO4 and ZnO as well as a small amount of ZnS, KCl and ZnAl2O4. Micro cracks resulted from the KAlSiO4, KAlSi2O6, Zn2SiO4 and ZnAl2O4 are the inducement of formation of brittle layer. The main reason for the formation of macro cracks and brittle layer in carbon brick is the continuous accumulation of ZnO in micro cracks. The brittle layer mainly occurs in the region where the temperature of carbon brick is lower than 950°C. The skull above the central line of the taphole is mainly composed of Ca2Al2SiO7, Ca2MgSi2O7, CaTiO3 and KAlSiO4. The skull below the central line of the taphole is primarily comprised of Ca2Al2SiO7, Ca2MgSi2O7, CaS, Fe and Fe3Si. The blast furnace slag phase in the skull below the central line of taphole is derived from the blast furnace slag that penetrates into the deadman coke. The blast furnace slag can be present below the central line of the taphole and adhere to the hot surface of the carbon brick to isolate the direct contact between the molten iron and carbon brick.