2000 Volume 40 Issue 11 Pages 1059-1066
Spinel (MgO·Al2O3) is known as one of the most harmful non-metallic inclusions in steel. However, the technology to avoid spinel formation has not yet been established due to lack of thermodynamic information on the spinel itself. In the present work, the free energies of formation of MgO and MgO·Al2O3, and the activities of the constituents in spinel solid solution have been directly measured by the chemical equilibrium technique. The free energies of formation of MgO and MgO·Al2O3 determined in the present work are expressed by the following equation:
Mg(l) + 1/2O2(g) = MgO(s) ΔG°f, MgO = -669350 + 135.0T (J/mol)
Al2O3(s) + MgO(s) = MgO·Al2O3(s) ΔG°f, MgO· Al2O3 = -20790 - 15.7T (J/mol)
The activity of stoichiometric MgO·Al2O3 exhibits negative deviation from ideality in the spinel solid solution. Phase stability diagram of spinel formation in liquid steel was assessed as a function of aluminum, magnesium and oxygen contents in iron at 1 873 K. The predicted phase boundaries of MgO·Al2O3, MgO and Al2O3 agreed well with previous observations by one of the present authors.