1992 年 7 巻 1 号 p. 31-39
For professional workers, the opportunity for exhibitting their special abilities and satisfying high-order needs are not limited in organizations. Therefore, their commitment to the organizations is apt to be limited.“Direct integration” in which individuals achieve their goals by contributing to organizational goals is ineffective for professional workers.“Indirect integration”that links professional workers' activity to organizational performance by including their long-term and indirect contributions is required.
This study was designed to investigate the cognitive gap between professional workers and companies on the “directivity of integration” dimension, which consists of items about personnel appraisal, rewards, and working conditions. A questionnaire survey was conducted for four categories of professionals and companies which employ professional workers. The results indicate that compared with companies, professional workers prefer less “direct integration.” They expect a management system that guarantees atatus based on professional activities and autonomy, and appraises them on standards based on their expertise. Consequently, these results suggest that companies should adopt a management system based on the “indirect integration” paradigm.