1997 年 12 巻 p. 216-230,283
Since the First Republic collapsed down because of the corrupted election scandal in 1960, how to manage elections has become one of the main political issues in Korea. Since then, the Constitutional Law of Korea became to include an independent chapter for the election management system in order to secure the fairness of election management, and it seems to be a very rare case in another countries.
This paper dealt with the election management system of Korea, reviewing how the system was practiced in the 15th National Assembly Election in 1996. The 15th Election was the first general election for the National Assembly since the new election law was established in 1994. Many Koreans believed that the new election law would realize a new election culture in Korea, i. e. fair and lawful, because it contains articles for regulating election related illegal activities more strictly and for reinforcing authority of the Election Management Commission more strongly than ever before. Accordingly, it was one of the most important issues during the 15th Election whether the new election management system would be successful or not.
Reviewing the election, this paper can point out two things. On the one hand, it can be hardly said that the new system achieved its original goals. There still remain a lot of problems in the system itself. Above all, the effect of institutional change was very limited. This might confirm that the change of election culture mainly relies on the human will, not on the institution. On the other hand, it's very hopeful that Korean people found out the fact that the elec tion culture can change gradually as the related parties of election such as candidates, political parties and voters realize what are the long but substantial steps for the fair competition. In addition, not less importantly, the continuous effort of the EMC is needed, along with the institutional change.