2016 年 28 巻 Special_issue 号 p. 113-119
Problems related to smoking by minors were reviewed over the time course and minors were investigated. Based on the legal definition in Japan, minors were defined as young people under 20 years of age. Active smoking (smoking by one's own will) and passive smoking (breathing secondhand smoke) were not distinguished, because it is difficult to judge which type of smoking caused a given problem, and because no specific problems are caused by any one type of smoking. Problems encountered in the nascent period, from pregnancy to the embryonal stage, are infertility and unwanted pregnancy, which sometimes leads to later child abuse. In the perinatal period, from mid-pregnancy to one year after birth, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders (ADHD) have been associated with smoking. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis was reviewed. Problems in infancy and early childhood, from one year of age to elementary school age are accidental ingestion, abuse, lower respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia, infant asthma, and otitis media. Problems encountered in the elementary school period are asthma, chronic respiratory symptoms and gingival pigmentation. Problems in adolescence, from junior high school days to 20 years of age, include generational chain of smoking, misunderstanding the Act Prohibiting Minors from Smoking, and difficulties in treatment. Finally, the concept of third-hand smoke is described. It was concluded that anyone could be affected by problems involved in smoking, when they are around a person who smokes.