2011 年 45 巻 4 号 p. 349-357
Hokuriku district in Japan is a major producing area of six-rowed barley, which is mainly consumed as pearled grain. However, the barley cultivated in this region has been damaged by scald, and commercial scald-resistant cultivars need to be developed. The influence of scald on yield reduction (previously addressed in many reports) and on pearled-grain quality was investigated. The whiteness of pearled grain, which is the most important quality in pearled barley, was not affected, but the pearling time tended to increase with the incidence of disease. Appropriate methods to evaluate resistance or susceptibility of cultivars in breeding programs were considered. Artificial inoculation in seedlings is not adequate to determine the resistance of cultivars because an outbreak of the disease has at times occurred after the heading stage. A field test with a source of infection, i.e., scattering leaves that were badly infected by prior inoculation of scald, accelerated the incidence and prevalence of the disease. When the source of infection was applied before the winter snows, it was especially effective in spreading the disease. The field test helped to determine resistant cultivars and breeding lines that inhibited the incidence of scald after the heading stage, although the occurrence of scald fluctuated according to weather conditions. Most Japanese commercial cultivars are highly susceptible in the field, whereas some foreign cultivars exhibit resistance to the dominant race of scald in Hokuriku district. We analyzed the resistance of “Brier” and showed that it was possibly controlled by one dominant gene at the heading stage, an observation that was in agreement with previous reports. On the other hand, three recessive genes are expected to confer resistance at the grain-filling stage. The heritability of resistance at the grain-filling stage was high, which means it is relatively easy to select resistant individuals in a breeding program even if it is controlled by several genes.