2018 Volume 28 Issue 1 Pages 43-52
This study investigated the causal relationships between the amount of total use or experience of different behaviors of hand-held video games and social adjustment among elementary school students. Social adjustment was measured using four variables: the number of online and real friends, satisfaction with their friendships, and loneliness. A structural equation model analysis was performed on two-wave panel data （483 students） collected at elementary schools in Kanto area with a one year interval. The results indicated no significant causal relationship between the total use of hand-held video games and social adjustment. However, as the students experienced some behaviors of hand-held video games more frequently, some of their social adjustment scores increased; the more they cooperated or competed with other players during battles, the more the number of online friends increased. As reverse causal relationships, as their scores of social adjustment increased or decreased, they experienced some contents more frequently; the more the number of online or real friends increased, the more frequent was the use of the communication function, such as chatting or exchanging text messages, during game play. The lower the score of satisfaction with their friendship was, the more experiences of cooperating or competing with other players during attacking or not attacking were indicated.