Whole exome sequencing (WES) technologies have accelerated genetic studies of Mendelian disorders, yielding approximately 30% diagnostic success. We encountered a 13-year-old Japanese female initially diagnosed with familial hypercholesterolemia on the basis of clinical manifestations of severe hypercholesterolemia (initial LDL cholesterol=609 mg/dl at the age of one) and systemic intertriginous xanthomas with histories of recurrent self-limiting episodes of fever and arthritis. Both her phenotypes seemed to co-segregate in a recessive manner. We performed WES on this patient, who was considered a proband. Among 206,430 variants found in this individual, we found 18,220 nonsense, missense, or splice site variants, of which 3,087 were rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01 or not reported) in 1000 Genome (Asian population). Filtering by assuming a recessive pattern of inheritance with the use of an in silico annotation prediction tool, we successfully narrowed down the candidates to the compound heterozygous mutations in the ABCG5 gene (c.1256G＞A or p.Arg419His/c.1763-1G＞A [splice acceptor site]) and to the double-compound heterozygous mutations in the MEFV gene (c.329T＞C/C or p.Leu110Pro/c.442G＞C/C or p.Glu148Val). The patient was genetically diagnosed with sitosterolemia and familial Mediterranean fever using WES for the first time. Such a comprehensive approach is useful for identifying causative mutations for multiple unrelated inheritable diseases.