2018 Volume 25 Issue 5 Pages 422-429
Aim: Children with Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) are widely prescribed statins, and it has been suggested that the effects of statins differ among ethnicities. We compared the efficacy and safety of pitavastatin in children and adolescents with FH in clinical trials conducted in Japan and Europe.
Methods: Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reductions, adjusted for confounding factors, and safety were compared between the studies in Japan and Europe. In the Japanese study, 14 males with heterozygous FH, aged 11.8±1.6 years, were randomized to 52-week double-blind treatment with 1 or 2 mg/day pitavastatin. In the European study, 106 children and adolescents with high risk hyperlipidemia (103 heterozygous FH), aged 10.6±2.9 years, were randomized to 12-week double-blind treatment with 1, 2 or 4 mg/day pitavastatin or placebo; 84 of these patients and 29 new patients participated in a 52-week open-label extension study.
Results: Age, body weight and baseline LDL-C were identified as factors influencing LDL-C reduction. There were no significant differences in the adjusted mean percentage reduction in LDL-C in Japanese and European children by pitavastatin (24.5% and 23.6%, respectively at 1 mg/day and 33.5% and 30.8%, respectively at 2 mg/day). Pitavastatin was well tolerated without any difference in the frequency or nature of adverse events between the treatment groups, or between the studies.
Conclusion: There were no significant differences between the efficacy or safety of pitavastatin in Japanese and European children and adolescents with FH, suggesting no relevant ethnic differences in the safety or efficacy of pitavastatin.