Oxidized low-density lipoprotein is known as an important factor in the development of atherosclerosis. The introduction of a sensitive procedure for the determination of oxidized low-density lipoprotein in human circulating plasma using a monoclonal antibody recognizing oxidized phosphatidylcholines has opened new fields of research based on in vivo oxidized low-density lipoprotein. The plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels are significantly elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction or chronic renal failure accompanied by hemodialysis. It was found that the plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein level increased prior to aortic atherosclerotic lesion enlargement in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. Recent studies have pointed out that oxidized low-density lipoprotein is transferrable between vessel wall tissue and the circulation, so it is a reasonable hypothesis that plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein levels reflect the oxidative status at local sites of atherogenesis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein measurement has been applied to human gingival crevicular fluids, which can be collected easily and safely, and relatively high levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein were shown to be present. These findings, together with recent clinical follow-up studies, suggest that oxidized low-density lipoprotein is a predictive biomarker of a variety of diseases related to oxidative stress. This review summarizes the current understanding of in vivo oxidized low-density lipoprotein and its potential significance as a biomarker of disease.
2012 by The Editorial Secretariat of JCBN