2011 Volume 119 Issue 1387 Pages 147-160
Shaping ceramic materials is a research area which has continuing innovation and excellence. Dry processing routes gave way to colloidal techniques enabling the preparation of more complex shapes for a wide and growing field of applications. Both dense and porous ceramics with improved properties can be produced. The development of colloidal processing led to the creation of the near-net-shaping concept, performed through slip casting, gelcasting and freeze casting. Even though these concepts have been used for the last few decades, different trends and combinations of these techniques are refreshing the processing strategies in recent years. New chemistries and concepts continue to emerge. This paper creates an overview of the recent trends in near-net-shaping routes, having a deeper look into gelcasting and freeze casting, since both processes are used in the preparation of tailored and custom dense and porous ceramics.