2019 Volume 127 Issue 7 Pages 491-497
CH3NH3PbI3−xClx-based photovoltaic devices with guanidinium [C(NH2)3, GA] were fabricated and characterized. The additive effects of guanidinium iodide, formamidinium [CH(NH2)2, FA] iodide, and guanidinium chloride were compared. Short-circuit current densities, open-circuit voltages, series resistances and shunt resistances were improved by the GA addition. The short-circuit current densities were increased by FA addition with GA. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency increased, which results from the suppression of pin-holes in perovskite layers by GA addition. The conversion efficiencies were improved by GA addition. X-ray diffraction showed that the lattice constants of the perovskite crystals increased by GA and FA addition, and that the GA substituted partially at the CH3NH3-site.